Preschool education and upbringing

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Under the wise leadership of our Esteemed President reforms aimed at improving the education system of our country to the level of the developed countries in the world are successfully implemented.

In the Epoch of Mightiness and Happiness the significant reforms, conducted in the education system, consolidate the national and world experience.  They help to improve teaching levels starting from the pre-school establishments till different stages of the educational system.  

As one of priorities of the state policy all conditions are created for the young generation, who are the future of our country, to be physically and mentally healthy, to grow up spiritually perfect from the early age, and to get update education and upbringing.

Preschool institutions are being established in Turkmenistan to help the families in order to bring up and educate children from 1 to 6 years old, to protect their physical and mental health, to strengthen them, to develop their personal abilities.

In the pre-school institutions education is provided according to pre-school education program which is the first and foremost step of the state system.

The main tasks of pre-school institutions are:

  • to bring up and educate children on the national spirit, to generate a deep love and loyalty to Turkmenistan, to people and to the President of Turkmenistan in them;
  • to create sense of sincerity, justice, respect for adults and their friends, love for the history, traditions and culture of the Turkmen people and carefulness to the nature in the children;
  • to prepare children for mastering educational curricula of the elementary education;
  • to provide harmonic relationship between the pre-school institutions and the families, between general education institutions and social organizations in upbringing and teaching the children;

In accordance with their responsibilities the pre-school institutions:

  • create the necessary conditions for upbringing and teaching the children, for their growing up healthy physically and mentally, and to build up their health;
  • organize educational activities at the highest level using advanced methods and modern equipment in  teaching and upbringing the children;
  • describe the role of the glorious history and national culture of the Turkmen people in creation and preservation of universal values on the curricula;
  • prepare to master the curriculum of primary education in accordance with the curricula;
  • organize the work for teaching foreign languages to children in accordance with curricula;
  • regularly organize various cultural, artistic, creative and physical activities for health to identify and develop children's natural talents and personal abilities.

There are various kinds of pre-school institutions in our country:

  • pre-school kindergartens of general type (nursery, kindergarten,….);
  • special pre-school institutions for mental deficient and physical disability children who are being rehabilitated and  where upbringing and education are hold;
  • mixed pre-school institutions (where  general and special groups created for normal children and for mental deficient and physical disability children who are being rehabilitated and where upbringing and education are hold);
  • day-and-night  pre-school institutions (groups) for children of citizens who are in need of social support;
  • specialized pre-school institutions where upbringing and education are carried out on special disciplines and some other types of pre-school institutions.


Due to health pre-school children with physical and (or) mental disabilities who are limited possibility are provided with opportunities for education (inclusive education) in general pre-school institutions.

Being the state language, the Turkmen language is the main language in upbringing and teaching at all kindergartens operating in Turkmenistan.

The preschool institutions are responsible for implementing pre-school programs on upbringing and education, for organizing upbringing and teaching, and for providing suitable programmer and teaching methods in accordance with the children’s age, mental and health conditions in front of the state, parents and social organization.

The work of the preschool institutions is agreed with the Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan and it is determined by the decision of the relevant ministries, departments, provinces, municipalities, districts, municipalities, depending on their subordination and location.

The work of upbringing and teaching children in the pre-school institutions is organized on the basis of the main curriculum. Every academic year the curriculum and the agenda is approved for each academic under state standard for preschool education.

Along with all educational institutions in our country the quality of education provided in pre-school institutions is constantly improving.  All the pre-school institutions are supplied with textbooks and manuals for free. The world modern educational and technical equipment, interactive multimedia and computer technologies are introduced and advanced teaching methods are used constantly in the pre-school institutions.

The upbringing of children in pre-school institutions is carried out continuously during the year. The school year for children begins on September 1 of that year and ends on May 25 of the last year. During this year autumn, winter, and spring holidays are organized for children.

In pre-school institutions groups are formed on the age difference of the children. In accordance with the normative regulations of Turkmenistan 15-20 children should be in a 1-3-year-old kindergarten group and 20-25 children in a 3-6-year-old kindergarten group in the pre-school institutions.

The heads of pre-school institutions, health care workers, educators and teachers are responsible for the supervision of child hygiene rules and safety measures in pre-school institutions

The procedure for admission and expulsion of children to pre-school institutions, as well as the transfer of a child from one kindergarten to another was approved by the Order of the Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan dated July 30, 2010 No. 171 “The admission of a child to kindergarten is carried out by an accompanying letter on the regulations of the group”.

Supervision and methodical supervision of the work of the preschool institution is carried out by the Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan, provincial, velayats, district, city educational institutions. The work of pre-school institutions is carried out by a unique leadership and according to the principles of colleagues’ instructions. The sole director of the preschool is the principal.

The director is responsible for the protection of children's health, thorough growing up of children from an early age, modern upbringing, the quality of a primary education to master the curriculum, maintenance the relation between the families and secondary schools, conducting the pre-school programs and curriculum completely, control of realization of financial and economic activities at the preschool institutions legally, hires and dismisses the staff of the preschool institutions, depending on the subordination of the staff of the preschool institutions to the relevant educational institution, or submits to the office (enterprise).

Public guidance in pre-school institutions is carried out by the teachers council. The Preschool Teachers' Board of Directors includes department heads, educators, teachers, doctors, and nurses. The head of the teachers' council is the director of the preschool institution.

Amounts to be paid by parents for the staying of the children in the pre-school institutions is approved by the order of the ministry of education of Turkmenistan dated March 26, 109. The amount of payment, deductions and deductions from the calculation, deductions and deductions of payments for one-month upbringing of children in preschool institutions is determined by that law.